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Ancient Egypt and the Nile River Valley. Egypt. Up Next. Egypt. Read and learn for free about the following article: Ancient Egyptian civilization If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. If you're behind a web filter, please make. Egypt (/ ˈ iː dʒ ɪ p t / EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصر ‎ Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصر ‎ Maṣr, Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ K h ēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in the northeast corner of Africa, whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond the continental boundary with Asia, as traditionally santissimods.gqg code: + Aug 21,  · Egypt, the most populous country in the Arab world, claims one of the world’s oldest cultures, descending from an ancient civilization that emerged in the 10th millennium BCE.


Egypt - Wikipedia


Ancient Egyptcivilization in northeastern Africa that dates from the 4th millennium bce. Its many achievements, preserved in its art and monuments, hold a fascination that continues to articles on egypt as archaeological finds expose its secrets. For subsequent history through the contemporary period, see Egypt. Ancient Egypt can be thought of as an oasis in the desert of northeastern Africa, dependent on the annual inundation of the Nile River to support its agricultural population.

Between the floodplain and the hills is a variable band of low desert that supported a certain amount of game. To the south lay the far less hospitable area of Nubiain which the river flowed through low sandstone hills that in most regions left only a very narrow strip of cultivable land. West of the Nile was the arid Saharabroken by a chain of oases some to miles to km from the river and lacking in all other resources except for a few minerals.

The eastern desert, between the Nile articles on egypt the Red Sea, was more important, for it supported a small nomadic population and desert game, contained numerous mineral deposits, including gold, and was the articles on egypt to the Red Sea. To the northeast was the Isthmus of Suez. From the late 2nd millennium bce onward, numerous attacks were made by land and sea along the eastern Mediterranean coast.

At first, relatively little cultural contact came by way of the Mediterranean Seaarticles on egypt, but from an early date Egypt maintained trading relations with the Lebanese port of Byblos present-day Jbail. Egypt needed few imports to maintain basic standards of living, but good timber was essential and not available within the country, so it usually was obtained from Lebanon.

Minerals such as obsidian and lapis lazuli were imported from as far afield as Anatolia and Afghanistan. Agriculture centred on the cultivation of cereal crops, chiefly emmer wheat Triticum dicoccum and barley Hordeum vulgare, articles on egypt.

The fertility of the land and general predictability of the inundation ensured very high productivity from a single annual crop, articles on egypt. This productivity made it possible to store large surpluses against crop failures and also formed the chief basis of Egyptian wealth, which was, until the creation of the large empires of the 1st millennium bcethe greatest of any state in the ancient Middle East, articles on egypt. As the river deposited alluvial silt, articles on egypt, raising the level of the floodplain, and land was reclaimed from marsh, the area available for cultivation in the Nile valley and delta increased, while pastoralism declined slowly.

In addition to grain crops, fruit and vegetables were important, the latter being irrigated year-round in small plots.

Fish was also vital to the diet. Papyruswhich grew abundantly in marshes, was gathered wild and in later times was cultivated, articles on egypt. It may have been used as a food crop, and it certainly was used to make rope, matting, and sandals.

Cattle may have been domesticated in articles on egypt Africa. The Egyptians kept many as draft animals and for their various products, showing some of the interest in breeds and individuals that is found to this day in the Sudan and eastern Africa, articles on egypt.

The donkey, which was the principal transport animal the camel did not become common until Roman timeswas probably domesticated in the region. The native Egyptian breed of sheep became extinct in the 2nd millennium bce and was replaced by an Asiatic breed. Sheep articles on egypt primarily a source of meat; their wool was rarely used. Goats were more numerous than sheep. Pigs were also raised and eaten. Ducks and geese were kept for food, and many of the vast numbers of wild and migratory birds found in Egypt were hunted and trapped.

Desert game, principally various species of antelope and ibex, were hunted by the elite; it was a royal privilege to hunt lions and wild cattle. Pets included dogs, which were also used for hunting, cats, and monkeys. In addition, the Egyptians had a great interest in, and knowledge of, most species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish in their environment. Most Egyptians were probably descended from settlers who moved to the Nile valley in prehistoric times, with population increase coming through natural fertility.

In various periods there were immigrants from Nubia, Libyaand especially the Middle East. They were historically significant and also may have contributed to population growth, but their numbers are unknown.

Most people lived in villages and towns in the Nile valley and delta. Dwellings articles on egypt normally built of mud brick and have long since disappeared beneath the rising water table or beneath modern town sites, thereby obliterating evidence for settlement patterns. In antiquity, as now, the most favoured location of settlements was on slightly raised ground near the riverbank, where transport and water were easily available and flooding was unlikely.

Until the 1st millennium bceEgypt was not urbanized to the same extent as Articles on egypt. Instead, a few centres, notably Memphis and Thebesattracted population and particularly the elite, while the rest of the people were relatively evenly spread over the land. The size of the population has been estimated as having risen from 1 to 1, articles on egypt.

Much higher levels of population were reached in Greco-Roman times. Nearly all of the people were engaged in agriculture and were probably tied to the land. In theory all the land belonged to the king, although in practice those living on it could articles on egypt easily be removed and some categories of land articles on egypt be bought and sold.

Land was assigned to high officials to provide them with an income, and most tracts required payment of substantial dues to the state, which had a strong interest in keeping the land in agricultural use. Abandoned land was taken back into state ownership and reassigned for cultivation, articles on egypt. The people who lived on and worked the land were not free to leave and were obliged to work it, but they were not slaves; most paid a proportion of their produce to major officials.

Free citizens who worked the land on their own behalf did emerge; terms applied to them tended originally to refer to poor people, but these agriculturalists were probably not poor.

Slavery was never common, being restricted to captives and foreigners or to people who were forced by poverty or debt to sell themselves into service. In the New Kingdom from about to bcelarge numbers of captive slaves were acquired by major state institutions or incorporated into the army. Punitive treatment of foreign slaves or of native fugitives from their obligations included forced labourexile in, for example, the oases of the western desertor compulsory enlistment in dangerous mining expeditions.

Even nonpunitive employment such as quarrying in the desert was hazardous. The official record of one expedition shows a mortality rate of more than 10 percent, articles on egypt. Just as the Egyptians optimized agricultural production with simple means, their crafts and techniques, many of which originally came from Asia, were raised to extraordinary levels of perfection. Some of the technical and organizational skills involved were remarkable. The construction of the great pyramids of the 4th dynasty c.

This expenditure of skill contrasts with sparse evidence of an essentially neolithic way articles on egypt living for the rural population of the time, while the use of flint tools persisted even in urban environments at least until the late 2nd millennium bce. Metal was correspondingly scarce, articles on egypt, much of it being used for prestige rather articles on egypt everyday purposes. In urban and elite contextsthe Egyptian ideal was the nuclear familybut, on the land and even within the central ruling group, there is evidence for extended families.

Egyptians were monogamous, and the choice of partners in marriage, for which no formal ceremony or legal sanction is known, did not follow a set articles on egypt. Consanguineous marriage was not practiced during the Dynastic period, except for the occasional marriage of a brother and sister within the royal family, and that practice may have been open only to kings or heirs to the throne. Divorce was in theory easy, but it was costly.

Women had a legal status only marginally inferior to articles on egypt of men. They could own and dispose of property in their own right, and they could initiate divorce and other legal proceedings.

Lower down the social scale, they probably worked on the land as well as in the house. The uneven distribution of wealth, labour, and technology was related to the only partly urban character of society, especially in the 3rd millennium bce. In the 3rd and early 2nd millennia, the elite ideal, expressed in the decoration of private tombs, was manorial and rural. Not until much later did Egyptians develop a more pronouncedly urban character. Ancient Egypt, articles on egypt.

Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Introduction to ancient Egyptian civilization Life in ancient Egypt The king and ideology: administration, art, and writing Sources, calendars, and chronology The recovery and study of ancient Egypt The Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods Predynastic Egypt The Early Dynastic period c.

Written By: Peter F. Dorman Alan K. Bowman Edward F, articles on egypt. Wente John R. Baines Alan Edouard Samuel. See Article History. Start your free trial today for unlimited access to Britannica.

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Ancient Egypt - HISTORY

 

articles on egypt

 

May 10,  · For almost 30 centuries—from its unification around B.C. to its conquest by Alexander the Great in B.C.—ancient Egypt was the preeminent civilization in Author: santissimods.gq Editors. Articles tagged as Ancient Egypt. July 17, Egypt Opens Its ‘Bent Pyramid’ for the First Time in More Than 50 Years. Trending Today June 13, Egypt (/ ˈ iː dʒ ɪ p t / EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصر ‎ Miṣr, Egyptian Arabic: مَصر ‎ Maṣr, Coptic: Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ K h ēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country in the northeast corner of Africa, whose territory in the Sinai Peninsula extends beyond the continental boundary with Asia, as traditionally santissimods.gqg code: +